Strategy, Innovation & Entrepreneurship

This site to dedicated to all those who have spend all their lives  trying to understand Strategy, Innovation and Entrepreneurship. I would like to humbly add my perspective to these very important areas of research and knowledge. Please treat this website as yours and feel free to contribute as much as you can and I will try to make sure that your viewpoints are captured on this website or on a Wordpress blogs.  Where ever I can I will provide free tips or tools for you to get started on your own. Please verify for yourself that these are still indeed free as over time the owners may have copyright certain aspect and especially if you are using if for commercial purposes.

My passion for these subject arose partly because of my career as a Strategic Studies lecturer and partly because of the desire to unravel the nexus between these concepts in my doctoral thesis. My greatest inspiration come from Strategist and thinkers like Clausewitz, Helmut Von Moltke,  Douhet,  Sun Tzu, John Boyd, Kant, Foucault, Habermas and  Schumpeter, Drucker and Mintzberg.




Strategy is a very complex subject. It is easier to share what strategy is not then what it actually is. Almost all the Business Schools in the world teach this subject and have often used their own convenient definitions. Majority of them, including Harvard Business School and Sloan are in fact most of the time addressing Business Strategy. Depending on the subject matter, there is Marketing Strategy, Pricing Strategy, Customer Relation Management Strategy, Operations Strategy, Financial Strategy and so forth. The tendency at the Business Schools is to provide practitioners a set of methodologies and techniques that can be quickly applied in the market place. They became very uncomfortable if there is no meat or specific way to strategize. All this is well and good for the short run but academics often ask what sets apart Strategy for other Operational Strategies or Plans. Here we could borrow some ideas from the military which defines ultimate Strategy as Grand Strategy and the rest as military Strategy, operations and tactics.  The focus of my discussion is there going to focus on the grand strategy of corporations or small and medium enterprises.



Innovative intensity at the firm level is defined as the demonstrated commitment of innovation inputs and throughputs. It can be measured by the commitment to research and development (R&D) expenditure, Science and Engineering(S&E) expertise, collaboration with research institutions or other firms and the organization and processes supporting innovation.   

The terms ‘innovative ability’, ‘innovative capability’, ‘innovative competence’ and ‘absorptive capacity’ are often used interchangeably and for the purpose of this study refers to innovative capacity. The concept of innovative capacity is the potential of a firm, region or nation to  output (Porter & Stern2002).

The phenomena of innovation can be described using the terms innovation inputs, processes (innovation throughputs) and products(innovation outputs). Innovation inputs refer to resources that support innovative activities (for example,research, training and skilled workers). Innovation throughput refers to activities that support the innovation process (for example collaboration).  Innovation output refers to the outcome new products as a result of the innovation inputs, throughputs and activities within the firm.

The EU Green Paper defines innovation as ‘the renewal and enlargement of the range of product and services and associated markets, the establishment of new methods of production, supply and distribution and th eintroduction of changes in management, work organization, and working conditions and skills of the work force’(EC 1995).


Past research have suggested that there is no characteristic, predisposition, or set of traits at the individual entrepreneur level of analysis that consistently"predicts" entrepreneurial activity. Miller argued that an entrepreneurial firm“engages in product-market innovation, undertakes somewhat risky ventures and is first to come up with ‘proactive’ innovations, beating competitors to the punch”; suggesting the dimensions of  innovativeness,risk-taking, and proactiveness, respectively(Miller 1983b). Lumpkin and Dess(1998) proposed two additional dimensions critical to the entrepreneurial orientation concept: competitive aggressiveness and autonomy. Collectively, these five dimensions—innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy—permeate the decision-making styles and practices of a firm’s members. Entrepreneurial orientation provides a strategic framework for researching the practices, processes and organizational mindset of firms engaged in managing firms and/or pursuing new ventures ((Lyon et al. 2000).

Autonomy refers to a willingness to act independently and be self directed in the pursuit of goals (Lumpkin & Dess 1996). It is envisaged that employees with high autonomy tend to have the drive to carry projects through to completion without relying on the support or approval of management.

Proactiveness refers to a forward-looking, opportunity-seeking perspective (Miller 1983a); (Venkataraman 1989). It suggests both vision and leadership in launching business ventures or developing new strategic initiatives since it implies an ability to anticipate changes in demand or other trends that indicate emerging opportunities. Risk Taking refers to making decisions and taking action under conditions of uncertainty ((Brockhaus 1980.).

Competitive Aggressiveness refers to the intensity of a firm’s efforts to compete with industry rivals (Lumpkin and Dess, 2001). It often involves a combative response or an offensive aimed at enhancing performance and/or improving market share (Venkatraman, 1989) with an overall objective of defending previous gains and maintaining a strong presence in the marketplace.

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